Retrofitting Systems

It is always better to have fall arrest and tie-back anchors for window washing, suspended maintenance, and fall protection systems installed in the “new construction” phase.  But far too often, builders attempt to save the client money on construction costs without due consideration of retrofit.  There are a number of reasons to avoid retrofitting these systems when at all possible:

  • it is a lot more expensive
  • will require penetrating the roofing assembly and possibly voiding existing warranty
  • intrusive; retrofitting can require gaining access through suites to get on to balconies and terraces
  • construction work during occupancy can disrupt the day to day operation and enjoyment of the building and tenants units
  • reinforcing of the structure may be required
  • cutting open the ceiling in tenants units may be required

Unfortunately, each day buildings require retrofitting of anchor systems for a number of reasons.  They may be very old, the current system may be deficient, or the building may simply have never had a system installed.  When it is decided in these cases that a system will be installed there are some things that must be considered.

The Drawings

Search everywhere you can to try and locate the as built architectural and structural drawings.  If the window washing system manufacturer has full sets of drawings he may not need as much or any access to private suites and terraces thus eliminating the need to inconvenience tenants at the design stage.  Keep in mind, access will still be required to perform the installation and for annual inspections.  Note: If this particular building already has anchors, there is a good chance that a drawing of this anchor system is posted at the roof access point.

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Roof Warranty

Check to see if there is an existing warranty in effect on the roof.  If there is, be sure that that roofer does all the patch work for the roof anchor systems installation otherwise the existing warranty may be voided.  If there is no warranty, make sure the roof anchor contractor will provide its own roofing contractor.  It is also worth considering having your anchor system installed at the same time as re-roofing.

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Suite Access

If the anchor contractor tells you that suite access is required, make sure that tenants are aware of the exact date the site walkthrough will occur.  This way the roof anchor contractor and building super are not met with any resistance when entering tenants units.

why inspection

Window Washing or Suspended Maintenance?

One of the most important things to understand is what type of system is being proposed by the anchor contractors.  Clarify if you want window washing only or the ability to suspend swing stages for facade work.  The difference in cost and functionality can be quite significant. Knowledge is power.  At the end of the day knowing and understanding more will serve to save money and headaches from getting quotes to supervising the construction of the job.

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Common Misconceptions Series – Part 1

I recently became aware of some very serious misconceptions within our industry and I thought that this would be a great platform to clear them up.

One of the most frequent misconceptions that I hear is that “we need davits” for a building/project to complete window washing and suspended maintenance.  In certain situations this is definitely the case; however, they are not the typical starting point for any design.

I think the misconception is that anchors and davits are the same type of equipment and function the same way.

Anchors and davits are not the same thing

Anchors fundamentally refer to a U-bar tie-off that can take many different shapes and are quite versatile.

Davits consist of multiple elongated pieces that primarily allow for rigging over unique structures.

  • Anchors usually come in two different styles: roof or wall.
  • Davits consist of three components: base, boom, and mast.
Davit Arm

3 components: base, boom, and mast

  • A roof anchor is a stainless steel U-bar welded to a cylinder shaped steel pier (usually 15” or 18” tall).  A picture of a roof anchor is shown below.
steel pier RA

Roof anchor

  • A wall anchor is a stainless steel U-bar welded to a steel base plate (varying in size but usually a few inches).  A picture of a wall anchor is shown below.
WA

Wall anchor

  • The davit arm consists of an aluminum mast (varying in size but typically 5-6’ tall) and an aluminum boom (again varying in size but upwards of 8’ long).
  • Davits are quite large assemblies.
  • These components are pinned/secured together to form the “davit arm”



  • Anchors can (in both cases) be secured to structure in many ways.  Most commonly they can be bolted through structure, cast or embedded into concrete, glued into structure with adhesive epoxy, welded to structure, or wrapped around structure.
  • The davit arm is then pinned/secured to a davit base.
  • A davit base is a galvanized piece of equipment that is responsible for securing the davit arm assembly in place during use.
  • Davit bases can be secured to structure in the same ways that anchors are.

 

  • Anchors can be used in practically any rigging situation – fall protection, suspended maintenance, window washing, direct rigging, in-direct rigging, etc.
  • Davits are not a practical as anchors in the sense that there are very specific reasons and situations that you would use them (basically over tall parapets and non-structural structure).


Rigging scenarios

Davits are not the typical starting point for any design.  Pro-Bel will always look to include the most simple and cost effective system possible (which is an anchor based system) and build on the design from there based on the building/project conditions.

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The Inspections Department

The Inspections Department is an integral part of our company.  Fall arrest and tie-back anchors (for window washing systems and fall protection equipment) are required to be inspected annually in accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations and the Department/Ministry of Labour.

Our mission in this Department is two-fold:

  • To develop first hand experience and maintain an expert team of Inspectors in this highly specialized field; thereby ensuring smooth information exchange that may affect liability or safety on buildings.
  • The Department must report on safety issues that may affect safety of the professional high-rise worker and the public.

In order to meet this mission statement the Department pro-actively promotes annual inspection programs which include:

  • Deficiency inspections,
  • Compliance inspections, and
  • Rigging inspections;

There are all supported by the Department/Ministry of Labour’s (DOL/MOL) input through their site inspections and published guidelines.  This collaborative involvement allows the agency (DOL/MOL) and all contractors using the equipment to work more harmoniously, in a safe manner.

The Inspections Department consists of dozens of professionals including trained inspectors, compliance specialists, testing technicians and professional engineers.  The Department also upgrades existing systems if needed, working closely with system designers and the operational teams as needed.

It also calls on the expertise of almost 150 skilled members of various Departments which may include AutoCAD designers, manufacturing and installation as required on a job-to-job basis.

Besides the general staff listed above, this Department includes and relies on five other major components:

1) Chief Executive Officer (CEO): responsible for formulating policy and providing the Inspections Department with first hand compliance information.  This executive direction is derived from the CEO’s experience dealing with the DOL/MOL; personally guiding the removal of Stop Work Orders (SWO) on buildings.  In addition to direct supervision, the CEO provides overall executive direction and broad administrative supervision for this Department.

2) Compliance Specialist (CS): reviews, routes, and tracks hazardous or potentially hazardous safety and structural conditions.  The CS’s staff is on call to respond to SWO’s or other safety and rigging issues or emergencies.  They can flag system conditions normally sited by DOL/MOL Inspectors or other sources, such as building inspections or technical auditors.  The CS evaluates all conditions; including review of site conditions, drawings, inspectors’ reports and photographs of the roof and conditions.  Subsequently, a “flag report packet” may be created; describing the type of upgrade or repair that may be needed (which may also include changes to the certified drawings or may need a DOL/MOL response report for removal, review and approval).

why inspection

3) In-House Maintenance Technicians & Skilled Installation Personnel: perform repairs to address flagged conditions.  Flagged repairs may include structural or other safety issues such as the repair of roof anchors, davit arms, safety tethers or locks, or other components damaged by corrosion or accident impact.   The maintenance and installation staff will perform the required corrective repair that will help to rehabilitate worn or defective components whose failure could affect long term service (such as heat shrink, mastic, cap flashings or remedial rust repair work).

4) Professional Engineering and Design Group: provides technical expertise related to normal engineering practices and principals; including reviewing the structure, preparing calculations and writing job specific test prescriptions.  The team also supplies invaluable engineering declarations for unsafe conditions that may affect the system.  The Professional Engineering Group member will make recommendations for immediate remediation, thereby assisting the CS in facilitating a proper solution.  The Professional Engineering group also provides technical expertise related to the procurement and development of system design and product development, supporting various areas of the division, including supervision of installation and inspection services.

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5) Administration Management & Invoicing Group: provides essential administrative and inspection process support, including tracking of each activity within the division.  The Senior Administration and Finance Group oversees and administers all administrative functions for the division, acting as liaison with the inspectors and technicians including, but not limited to:

  • Reviewing reports for completeness to ensure compliance and functionality is clear
  • Reviewing lists of equipment to ensure they match  drawings for quality control purposes
  • Tracking documents and publishing control documents to our web-based customer portal
  • Monitoring staff and supervising repairs flagged by inspectors or compliance specialists
  • Scheduling work performed by Pro-Bel installers or other contractors and producing mandated modification and repair reports on all activities
  • Managing the status of each warranty claim and ensuring products are tracked and replaced through our Pro-Bel case system
  • Ensuring all on-site inspections are preformed on time and that the field conditions are recorded

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The Inspections Department management takes a pro-active approach in the educating of Building Owners and Property Managers, as well as the training of workers and contractors in the use of equipment to work safely on roofs.

This professional Inspections Department will ensure a smooth yearly inspection process.  Each highly-specialized area is designed to address the essential services that are necessary to provide the expert service that our clients and industry expect.

In order to provide critical safety measures and due diligence on your rooftop please contact Pro-Bel for annual inspections, testing, safety assessments, rigging inspections or site training.

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Strength & Force Standards

Many people do not have first hand experience with fall arrest and tie-back roof anchors (for window washing systems and fall protection equipment) and are not versed in high-rate energy performance methods.

Alho1

An ideal fall arrest and tie-back roof anchor is designed to meet the strength and force standards contained in Federal OSHA 29CFR1910.66 Appendix C.

To arrest a fall in a controlled manner, it is essential that there is sufficient energy absorption capacity in the system.  Without this energy absorption, the fall can only be arrested by applying large forces to the worker and to the anchorage, which can result in either (or both) being severely affected.

A full understanding of the “force requirement” is a complex process.  A force-type review takes into account the energy consideration in the roof anchor design.  These loads can be considered “high-rate-energy forces”.  Actual loads on the user, anchorage and structure can vary widely.

Alho1Alho1The designer must recognize that the anchor, securement and structure can see various loads because of the varying:

  • user weight,
  • height of fall,
  • geometry, and
  • type of rigging equipment used

Many people do not have first hand experience with fall arrest and tie-back roof anchors (for window washing systems and fall protection equipment) and are not versed in high-rate energy performance methods.  Anchors are often over designed or under designed and may not adequately support a worker and the rigging equipment in the event of a failure.

Drop Test Procedures

Strength Test: a test weight is dropped once using 300 pounds plus or minus 5 pounds (135 kg plus or minus 2.5 kg) and should be used to test a safety anchor.

The drop test must be performed with a non-elastic wire rope lanyard.  The lanyard length should be 5 feet plus or minus 2 inches (1.83 m plus or minus 5 cm) as measured from the fixed rigid anchorage.

The test weight should fall without interference, obstruction, or hitting the floor or ground during the test.  Any breakage or slippage which permits the weight to fall free to the ground should constitute failure of the anchor and therefore the anchor does not pass the strength test.

Force Test: consists of dropping the respective test weight using a five foot shock absorbing lanyard.  The maximum elongation distance should be recorded during the force test.  The intent in the force test is to control and measure the applied arresting forces and loads.  A system design fails the force test if the recorded maximum arresting force exceeds 2,520 pounds (11.21 Kn) when using a body harness.

The force test is most often used when designing horizontal life line parts and components.  Understanding these force principles will help designers understand the anchor performance and design.

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Normally this means that the anchor eye may bend or yield, yet the anchorage or structure will be protected.”

Good design will include a factor of safety or proper engineering multiple over the allowable working load.  Proper design will ensure that the anchor deforms in order to absorb energy, yet at the same time will ensure that the final securement method or studs cannot fail.

The critical connections must include an increased importance factor of 1.9 vs. 1, if redundancy is not built into the design. It should also be mentioned that adhesive anchors have higher design requirements because of the possible abnormal deterioration of concrete and aging loss; redundancy in anchor bolts must also be considered.

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Working With Concrete

Whether it is new construction of retrofit; there is always a way to install window washing, suspended maintenance, and fall protection equipment.  While equipment can be installed on structural steel or even wood structure, the easiest structure to work with is reinforced concrete.  It is the most cost effective and does not typically require access to the underside or localized reinforcing.  It also has a number of other benefits such as improved insulation and sound barrier qualities.

The best part in the new construction phase is that we do not have to send anyone to the site for installation (which obviously saves everyone money, time, and other resources).  We simply send the equipment (usually a “roof anchor”) to the site (with our shop drawings) and the roof anchors are cast into the concrete.  There are three types of “cast in” anchors:

  • single stud,
  • four stud, and
  • fully embedded.

Single Stud Roof Anchor

A single stud roof anchor is the most physically difficult to place (for casting in) as there is only have one bolt to balance the anchor.

single stud

Four Stud Roof Anchor

A four stud roof anchor is much easier to place when casting in.  As you can imagine, there are more studs (or bolts) from which to stand the anchor on.  These extra studs are required by engineering (specifically for taller anchors).

four stud

Fully Embedded Roof Anchor

A fully embedded roof anchor is actually the easiest to cast in because of its flat bottom.  Also, it is the most cost effective because it is all pier (instead of having stud(s) on the bottom).

fully embedded

What If Pours Are Missed?

In the unfortunate event that a pour is missed by the roof anchor manufacturer and anchors have to be retrofitted, it is not the end of the world!  

Adhesive Roof Anchor

An adhesive roof anchor is glued into place with an epoxy.  This type of anchor does require load testing once every five years though (which is an extra service).

adhesive

Bolt Through Roof Anchor

A bolt through roof anchor is another solution for a roof anchor that has to be retrofitted.  This type of anchor does require access to the underside of the concrete though and it leaves components (base plate, bolt, nut) exposed.

bolt through

 

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Roof Anchor Design Principles

The selection of proper roof anchors is critical and requires an in depth knowledge of fall window washing, suspended maintenance, and fall protection codes and rigging methods.  Also, recognizing that each building is different, most architects, developers, and general contractors find the selection of a professional roof anchor company a daunting task.

Lifelines

A standard lifeline is 5/8 inch (1.59 centimeters) in diameter and has a breaking strength of 5,000 pounds (2,267.96 kilograms).  However, tying off to an anchor using a knot in a rope can reduce its strength by 50% (or more) to the cutting action of the lifeline or lanyard.

Therefore, good design must ensure that the anchor eye is greater in diameter than the rope itself.  The proper anchor eye for a possible knot connection is 3/4 inch (or 1.9 centimeters).  This design principle will ensure that the anchor eye will not cut, damage, or weaken the rope.

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Flate Plate Anchors

Special caution should be noted when considering a flat thin plate anchor.  These anchor designs are intended to be used with a snap hook or D-ring connection.  However, if a knot is tied to these anchors the rope is more likely to sever and fail.

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D-Rings and Snap Hooks

D-rings and snap hooks are designed with minimum tensile strength of 5,000 pounds (2,267.96 kilograms).  D-rings and snap hooks shall be proof-tested to a minimum tensile load of 3,600 pounds (1,632.93 kilograms) without cracking, breaking, or suffering permanent deformation.

Other problematic compatibility issues include the use of non-locking snap hooks or D-rings that are sized incorrectly and are not compatible with the anchor diameter and/or inside dimension of the anchor.  These incompatible dimensions, relative to the snap hook, will cause the connected object to depress the snap hook keeper and release unintentionally.

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Forged Eye Bolts

Eye bolts are rated along the axis of the bolt and its strength is greatly reduced if the force is applied at an angle to this axis in the direction of shear.

Generally roll out can occur using small eyebolts of 1/2 inch (1.27 centimeters) and 5/8 inch (1.59 centimeters) diameter.  These eyebolts are also too rigid so when put to a fall arrest test they will damage the securement stud and cannot be designed with redundancy.  They are too small and should not be used as part of a fall arrest system.

Also, it should be stated that forged eyebolts, non-shoulder, and shoulder eye bolts are not designed and approved by the manufacturer as a life safety product.  These anchors are designed for vertical loading not angle loading.   Also, recognizing that forged eye bolts are rigid, the securement bolt is almost always damaged under a test load or cyclical normal use conditions.

A hook must be compatible when the diameter of anchor to which the snap hook is attached is greater than the inside length of the snap hook when measured from the bottom (hinged end) of the keeper to the inside curved top of the snap hook.  Thus, no matter how the D-ring is positioned or moved (rolls) with the snap hook attached, the D-ring cannot touch the outside of the keeper, thus depressing it open.

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Why 5,000 pounds?

The design rule is that 5,000 pounds (2,267.96 kilograms) fracture or pull out is sufficient to accept all tie-back and life line loads that are likely to be subjected to the anchor using conventional equipment on a roof top.

The anchor eye, base, or base plate should accept this energy and load not the securement studs to support a worker in the event of a fall.  The codes state that the 5,000 pounds (2,267.96 kilograms) based on the weight of a worker being 250 pounds (113.4 kilograms), experiencing a force of gravity multipled by 10 times a safety factor of 2.

250 x 10= 2,500 x 2= 5,000 pounds

While the energy absorbing lanyards hold in excess of 5,000 pounds (2,267.96 kilograms) when fully absorbed, most limit the load during the fall to under 1,250 pounds (566.99 kilograms).

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Working At Heights

Everyone is responsible for preventing falls when working at heights.  The building owner/property manager/owner’s representative, the self-employed contractor, any subcontractor and the worker are all responsible for safety considerations when on a roof.

The concern for health and safety on a roof becomes critical as soon as someone steps foot on a roof (and not just when they “get close” to the edge).  All aspects of working safely at heights should be considered.  The general rule is that fall protection is required: 

  • In Canada, where any section of the parapet wall is less than 36 inches (and someone is subject to a 10 foot fall)
  • In the USA, where any section of the parapet wall is less than 42 inches (and someone is subject to a 4 foot fall)

Preventing falls from heights is a priority for the Department of Labour (DOL) and Ministry of Labour (MOL).  Each expects contractors and employers with staff working at heights to actively manage any significant hazard.

Controlling the Hazard 

In order to stay safe when working at heights you must ensure effective controls are in place to prevent people from being harmed.

To select the most effective controls, you must consider the following steps: 

  • Eliminate the chances of a fall by doing as much of the preparation work as possible before work begins.  Normally this is done by doing a fall hazard roof assessment.  The assessment report will review all aspects of safe access and egress for all work activities that may take place on the roof.  The intent is to isolate the worker from the risk of a fall by using guard rails, scaffolds and roof edge protection as means of prevention.  In some situations a combination of controls will be required to ensure safe work.
  • Edge protection is imperative.  Edge protection should be used as a means of isolating workers from a fall.  This includes guard rails, horizontal life lines, localized tieback and lifeline anchors, access ladders and catwalks.  Edge protection should be provided on all the exposed edges of a roof, including the perimeter of buildings, skylights or other fragile roof materials and for any openings in the roof.  This also applies to openings and edges of floor areas.
  • Where there is the risk of workers falling through openings in a roof, the openings should be identified and guarded. 

SWEETS1

Check List for Working Safely on a Roof 

  • Are workers trained or supervised to work on a roof, near the roof edge or over the edge using suspended equipment safely?
  • Has a full hazard assessment been completed before work starts?
  • Is there safe access to all roof areas?
  • Has the contractor provided a work plan to safely access the building edge or facade?
  • Have the roof and fall arrest system been inspected, reviewed and tested if needed?
  • Have all the access restrictions been identified and understood by the contractors?
  • Are workers protected from falling off roof edges and do they have a rescue plan?
  • Are workers protected from falling from incomplete roofs?
  • Are workers protected from falling through skylights and penetrations or other brittle roofing?
  • Are people below the work protected from the dangers of falling materials?
  • Do roof workers have appropriate footwear to prevent them from slipping?
  • Are the weather conditions suitable for working on a roof?
  • Have lower electrical hazards and vehicle traffic hazards been identified?  

Other Possible Considerations

  • Eliminate the hazard of a fall from a roof.
  • Work from the ground.
  • Work from inside where there is no possibility of a fall.
  • Prefabricate components at ground level or prior to installation.
  • Remove complete fixtures to ground level or shop for maintenance (e.g. air conditioning units).
  • Pre-paint fixtures/roof prior to installation.
  • When isolating the hazard of a fall from a roof you can consider some addition temporary protections.
  • Scaffolding and mobile scaffolds/step platforms/working in an elevating work platform.

It is the law so doing nothing to address safety when working at heights is not an option!

worker

Davit Systems

I often hear people referring to window washing systems as davit systems.  While this certainly is true it is not the only way to complete window washing (see The Roof Anchor and Roof Anchors Explained for more).  So what exactly are davits, davit arms, davit bases, and davit systems then?

Davit Arm Assemblies

Davit arms are commonly used to rig over non-structural parapets, decorative cornices, and glass balcony guardrails.  These arms act as the primary suspension points usually for swingstages, but are also used for supporting single man cages and bosun’s chairs.  Comprised of a mast (the vertical piece) and boom (the horizontal piece), davit arms are secured to the structure using bases.  These bases vary to suit the roof or wall construction.

Davit Arm

The main distinction in davit systems is whether or not the system is designed to be ground rigged or roof rigged.  In a ground rigged scenario, each successive “drop” is done by picking up the platform from ground level, raising it to roof level, then back to the ground level.  At ground level the platform is then moved to the next “drop” location.

In a roof rigged scenario, the mast on the davit arm is tall enough to allow it to pick the platform up from ground level, and hoist it onto the roof.  The stage is then relocated on the roof level to align with each “drop” location.

stage on roof

 

Quick Facts

  • Davit arms are typically portable and are relocated to new bases for every drop. 
  • They can be broken down into segments for ease of carrying. 
  • Mast and boom size vary depending on building requirements.
  • At times, arms that are very large or are required in difficult to access areas, are recommended or necessary to be permanently left in place for facade access.  Also referred to as, “dedicated arms”.

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stage repelling

Basics of Fall Protection

Our industry is most commonly associated with window washing systems and suspended maintenance systems.  Because of this, fall protection (specifically on low-rise buildings) is often overlooked. 

Fall Arrest vs. Fall Restraint

“Fall protection” is actually a term that encompasses the method of either “fall arrest” or “fall restraint”.

Fall arrest prevents a person from reaching the ground (once a fall occurs).  An example of fall arrest is a worker tripping over the edge of a building but then being suspended midair (by a lanyard tied to a cable system) and not reaching the ground.

Fall restraint prevents a worker from even reaching a fall.  An example of fall restraint is a worker not being able to reach the edge of a building because a guard rail is located in the way.

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Preventing Falls

Data shows that falls are the most common accident in the construction industry and that 75% of the falls occur at elevations of less than 3 stories.

A fall protection system can include:

  • Cable systems
  • Fixed ladders
  • Guard rails
  • Localized anchors

IMG0038a

When designing a fall protection system one must concerned itself with:

Function

 
What type of work is being completed while the system is in use?

Is it…

  • Washing the windows from a ladder

or fixing/replacing/servicing…

  • Antennas
  • Cooling tower
  • Drains
  • Equipment located on the façade of the building (from a ladder on the ground)
  • Lights
  • Mechanical units
  • Pipes
  • Roofing
  • Satellites
  • Surveillance cameras

Frequency


How often will this work occur?

If it is expected, routine, scheduled maintenance then the most user friendly system (to encourage its use) should be implemented.

If it is unexpected, non-routine, unscheduled maintenance then the most basic and cost effective system should be implemented.

Users


Who is using the system?

A worker who is trained and supervised may not require as much equipment as someone who is unfamiliar with fall protection.

IMG0086 

Falls can effectively be prevented with adequate safety equipment, proper training, and a suitable fall protection system.

The bottom-line is; fall protection equipment is needed:

  • In Canada, where any section of the parapet wall is less than 36 inches (and someone is subject to a 10 foot fall)
  • In the USA, where any section of the parapet wall is less than 42 inches (and someone is subject to a 4 foot fall)

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The Roof Anchor

There are many different types of equipment that are installed for window washing, suspended maintenance, and fall protection.  They can include (but are not limited to):

  • roof anchors,
  • wall anchors,
  • soffit anchors,
  • davits,
  • rigging sleeves,
  • horizontal trolley’s,
  • monorail,
  • gantry’s and
  • roof cars.

With all the customized equipment out there – nine times out of ten it is a simple roof anchor that gets the job done!

Different companies (around the globe) use different styles of roof anchors that are each unique in their own way.  A vertical steel pier anchor is the most common and are all pretty much the same.  It is usually the actual tie-off (or anchorage point) that varies.  Some companies utilize a swivel head U-bar that actually points horizontal (perpendicular) to the pier and can swivel while others have fixed “U-bars” or “eyelets”.  These point vertical such as in the picture shown below.  The material’s used from pier, U-bar, and hardware can vary in material from galvanized to stainless steel (depending on the project specifications) although stainless steel piers are not used very often due to cost.

Weld To Structure Roof Anchor

These (steel pier) anchors can be installed to accommodate three different styles of systems: window washing, suspended maintenance, and fall protection.

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Window Washing

Window washers can utilize anchor points to suspend themselves adjacent to the building facade to perform window washing operations.  This is commonly done on a bosun’s chair but can also be performed on swing stages as well.

Suspended Maintenance

Companies performing facade maintenance such as brick restoration, window caulking, or balcony repair can utilize anchor points to suspend the platform (swing stage) that they work from.

Fall Protection

Workers can utilize either individual, localized anchor points or a horizontal lifeline cable system to prevent them from falling (travel restraint) or save them from hitting the ground (fall arrest) in the event they do fall.

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Often the simplest approach is the best one and window washing, suspended maintenance, and fall protection systems are no exception.

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